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Curriculum level 6

He aha te kai o te rangatira? He kōrero, he kōrero, he kōrero.

What is the food of the leader? It is communication.

Links to social studies

Strands: Identity, Culture and Organisation, and Continuity and Change.

  • Level 6 social studies achievement objective: Understand how individuals, groups and institutions work to promote social justice and human rights.
  • Level 6 history achievement objective: Understand how the causes and consequences of past events that are of significance to New Zealanders shape the lives of people and society.

Key concepts

Leadership and social justice.

Focus of learning

In this unit, students explore the idea of social justice, the notion of leadership, and ways to recognise the leadership of Māori.

Sergeant Haane Manahi of Te Arawa and Ngāti Raukawa. Photograph by George Bull at Maadi, Egypt, circa 10 June 1943. © Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. Reference: DA-04139.

The unit focuses on Haane Manahi and the injustice perceived by many when his recommendation for the Victoria Cross (VC) for bravery in the Second World War was declined. Many people felt that this was unjust. Further, Te Arawa claimed that their requests to restore the original VC recommendation were not handled adequately by the New Zealand Government and that this failure constituted a breach of the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi. Through the Waitangi Tribunal, they sought recommendations that the Crown consult with Te Arawa and present a fully researched and agreed proposal to the Queen for her consideration.

The unit investigates ways that individual people (for example, Sir Charles Bennett), groups (for example, the Manahi VC Committee), and institutions (for example, the New Zealand Government) pressed for Haane Manahi to be awarded the Victoria Cross.

Students are challenged to think critically about the social justice issues involved in the Haane case, including the reasons why Haane should or should not have been awarded the VC. They explore the perspectives and values of a range of individuals, groups, and institutions (including those of the Crown).

Through this context, students extend their understanding of how New Zealand society functions. They learn more about leadership roles, how and why people seek to promote social justice, and how people (including the students themselves) can take effective action.

Indicator

  • Describing the significant aspects of this issue in relation to social justice.

Learning outcomes

Students could:

  • Discuss leadership and arrive at a shared definition.
  • Identify the qualities of a good leader and the pros and cons of different leadership styles.
  • Identify influential Māori leaders – both past and present – comparing/contrasting their leadership styles. (View Princess Te Puea’s perspective, about Waikato’s stance, and Who encouraged men to go to war? Why?, which discusses the views of the MP for Taitokerau at the time, Taurekareka Henare.)
  • List the achievements of Ngarimu VC and Haane.
  • Explain what the VC is and outline the acts deserving of this award.
  • Explain why Haane was, twice, not awarded the VC. (View Downgrading of Haane Manahi’s Victoria Cross, which outlines how the VC nomination was downgraded to a Distinguished Conduct Medal.)
  • Research reasons why Haane should have received the VC (or not).
  • Discuss anomalies around giving awards.
  • Identify the injustices Māori soldiers faced on their return from war.
  • Explore the tuakana/teina (older/younger sibling) relationships that would have existed in the 28th (Māori) Battalion and compare with tuakana/teina relationships today.
  • Explore the meaning and significance of the lyrics in E te Hokowhitu a Tū and Haane. (View Rendition of the waiata E te Hokowhitu a Tū, and Lyrics of the haka Haane.)
  • Explaining the perspectives and values of individuals, groups and institutions working to promote social justice.

Indicator

Learning outcomes

Students could:

Indicator

Analysing how and why social actions taken by individuals, groups, or institutions promote social justice.

Learning outcomes

Students could:

  • Produce a reasoned argument as to why Haane should or should not have received the VC.
  • Analyse the effectiveness of the actions taken by the individuals, groups, or institutions above.

Indicator

Evaluating the significance to our society of individuals, groups, or institutions working to promote social justice.

Learning outcomes

Students could:

  • Using this issue as a base, look at another area of New Zealand life, as it relates to Māori society, where social justice is being promoted, for example, land rights, the flying of the Māori flag, foreshore/seabed.
  • Identify current leaders and the methods they are using to promote social justice.

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